Postembryonic staging of wild-type goldfish, with brief reference to skeletal systems

Ing Jia Li, Chun Ju Chang, Shi Chieh Liu, Gembu Abe, Kinya G. Ota

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    16 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: Artificial selection of postembryonic features is known to have established morphological variation in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Although previous studies have suggested that goldfish and zebrafish are almost directly comparable at the embryonic level, little is known at the postembryonic level. Results: Here, we categorized the postembryonic developmental process in the wild-type goldfish into 11 different stages. We also report certain differences between the postembryonic developmental processes of goldfish and zebrafish, especially in the skeletal systems (scales and median fin skeletons), suggesting that postembryonic development underwent evolutionary divergence in these two teleost species. Conclusions: Our postembryonic staging system of wild-type goldfish paves the way for careful and appropriate comparison with other teleost species. The staging system will also facilitate comparative ontogenic analyses between wild-type and mutant goldfish strains, allowing us to closely study the relationship between artificial selection and molecular developmental mechanisms in vertebrates.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1485-1518
    Number of pages34
    JournalDevelopmental Dynamics
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - 2015 Dec 1


    • Artificial selection
    • Domestication
    • Morphology
    • Ontogeny
    • Phylogeny

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Developmental Biology


    Dive into the research topics of 'Postembryonic staging of wild-type goldfish, with brief reference to skeletal systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this