To test the ability of regenerated endothelium to evoke endothelium-dependent relaxations, male Yorkshire pigs underwent balloon endothelial denudation of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Endothelium-dependent responses were examined in vitro, in rings of coronary segments taken from the denuded area or from the proximal left circumflex coronary artery. The experiments were performed 8 days or 4 weeks after the denudation. Endothelial growth was confirmed by histologic examination 8 days after the denudation and by demonstrating the presence of endothelial-dependent relaxations to bradykinin; at that time aggregating platelets evoked normal endothelium-dependent responses. However, at 4 weeks after the denudation, the relaxations to aggregating platelets were markedly depressed although continuous endothelial lining was present, and the endothelium-dependent responses to bradykinin, adenosine diphosphate, the Ca2+-ionophore A23187, platelet activating factor, and thrombin were unaltered. Four weeks after denudation, endothelium-dependent relaxations to serotonin were depressed. Higher concentration of serotonin induced endothelium-dependent contractions in quiescent rings with regenerated endothelium, suggesting that regenerated endothelial cells may produce endothelium-derived constricting factor(s) and release less endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s) when exposed to the monoamine. The endothelium-dependent relaxation to serotonin was not reduced by the S2-serotonergic antagonist ketanserin but prevented by the combined S1- and S2-serotonergic blocker methiothepin. The platelet-induced relaxation was due to released serotonin and adenine nucleotides in control left circumflex coronary arteries, but in left anterior descending coronary artery with regenerated endothelium, it was due solely to the latter. The platelet-induced contractions were due to activation of receptors on the smooth muscle cells. Four weeks after denudation, regenerated endothelial cells were morphologically different from native cells; they were elongated and cuboidal, and the number of the cells had increased twofold. At this state, eccentric myointimal thickening was present in the previously denuded portion. These experiments indicate that the protective role of endothelial cells against the vasoconstriction induced by aggregating platelets is depressed in the chronic regenerated state. A lack of responsiveness to serotonin appears to be the cause for the endothelial dysfunction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine