Plant proximity perception dynamically modulates hormone levels and sensitivity in Arabidopsis

Jordi Bou-Torrent, Anahit Galstyan, Marçal Gallemí, Nicolás Cifuentes-Esquivel, Maria José Molina-Contreras, Mercè Salla-Martret, Yusuke Jikumaru, Shinjiro Yamaguchi, Yuji Kamiya, Jaime F. Martínez-García

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    50 Citations (Scopus)


    The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) refers to a set of plant responses initiated after perception by the phytochromes of light enriched in far-red colour reflected from or filtered by neighbouring plants. These varied responses are aimed at anticipating eventual shading from potential competitor vegetation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious SAS response at the seedling stage is the increase in hypocotyl elongation. Here, we describe how plant proximity perception rapidly and temporally alters the levels of not only auxins but also active brassinosteroids and gibberellins. At the same time, shade alters the seedling sensitivity to hormones. Plant proximity perception also involves dramatic changes in gene expression that rapidly result in a new balance between positive and negative factors in a network of interacting basic helix-loop-helix proteins, such as HFR1, PAR1, and BIM and BEE factors. Here, it was shown that several of these factors act as auxin-and BR-responsiveness modulators, which ultimately control the intensity or degree of hypocotyl elongation. It was deduced that, as a consequence of the plant proximity-dependent new, dynamic, and local balance between hormone synthesis and sensitivity (mechanistically resulting from a restructured network of SAS regulators), SAS responses are unleashed and hypocotyls elongate.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2937-2947
    Number of pages11
    JournalJournal of experimental botany
    Issue number11
    Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun


    • Arabidopsis
    • Syndrome
    • auxins
    • brassinosteroids
    • gibberellins
    • hypocotyl elongation
    • plant proximity
    • shade avoidance

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Physiology
    • Plant Science


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