Physical Zero-Knowledge Proof for Suguru Puzzle

Léo Robert, Daiki Miyahara, Pascal Lafourcade, Takaaki Mizuki

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

9 Citations (Scopus)


Suguru is a paper and pencil puzzle invented by Naoki Inaba. The goal of the game is to fulfil a grid with numbers between 1 and 5 and to respect three simple constraints. In this paper we design a physical Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP) protocol for Suguru. A ZKP protocol allows a prover (P) to prove that he knows a solution of a Suguru grid to a verifier (V) without leaking any information on the solution. For constructing such a physical ZKP protocol, we only rely on a small number of physical cards and an adapted encoding. For a grid of Suguru with n cells, we only use 5 n+ 5 cards. Moreover, we prove the three classical security properties of a ZKP: completeness, extractability, and zero-knowledge.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationStabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems - 22nd International Symposium, SSS 2020, Proceedings
EditorsStéphane Devismes, Neeraj Mittal
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)9783030643478
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event22nd International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems, SSS 2020 - Austin, United States
Duration: 2020 Nov 182020 Nov 21

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12514 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference22nd International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems, SSS 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Completeness
  • Extractability
  • Physical zero-knowledge proof
  • Security
  • Suguru
  • Zero-knowledge

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


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