A simple and easily controllable immobilization method for photosensitizer dyes and the resulting photosensitizer dye nanoparticle-coated membranes (PDNMs) that generate singlet oxygen ( 1O 2) under atmospheric conditions were demonstrated. A 100% porphyrin nanoparticles layer that is less than 1 μm thick on a membrane filter caused quantitative 1O 2 production under illumination. The thin layer promotes effective light absorption as well as significantly slowed deactivation of 1O 2 by supporting materials. Moreover, the PDNMs were highly resistant to photobleaching of dye itself.
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