Electronic states and band bending behavior of SnO2 single crystals grown by physical vapor transport were investigated by combining surface-sensitive soft-and bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). The as-grown SnO2 crystals had a higher density of in-gap states relating to oxygen vacancies in comparison with the SnO2 crystal annealed at 1100 °C under oxygen atmosphere. Both samples have similar Fermi level pinning at 0.26 eV below the conduction band minimum at the surface and no surface accumulation layer. The estimated carrier density by PES at the surface of the as-grown and annealed SnO2 crystals were 3.2 × 1017 and 3.2 × 1015 cm-3, respectively.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)