The electronic states and band bending behavior of melt-grown In2O3 single crystals were investigated by combining surface-sensitive soft- and bulk-sensitive hard-X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The as-grown In2O3 crystal had a higher density of in-gap states related to oxygen vacancies than the In2O3 crystal annealed in air at 1000 °C. Nevertheless, the polished surfaces of both samples had surface electron accumulation layers (SEALs) with similar Fermi level pinning energies at the surface. The estimated peak carrier density at the surface of both samples was 1.2 ' 1020cm%3. The SEALs may originate from defects due to surface polishing or adsorbates.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)