Cell polarity is essential for various asymmetric cellular events, and the partitioning defective (PAR) protein PAR3 (encoded by PARD3 in mammals) plays a unique role as a cellular landmark to establish polarity. In epithelial cells, PAR3 localizes at the subapical border, such as the tight junction in vertebrates, and functions as an apical determinant. Although we know a great deal about the regulators of PAR3 localization, how PAR3 is concentrated and localized to a specific membrane domain remains an important question to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrate that ASPP2 (also known as TP53BP2), which controls PAR3 localization, links PAR3 and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The ASPP2-PP1 complex dephosphorylates a novel phosphorylation site, Ser852, of PAR3. Furthermore, Ser852- or Ser889-unphosphorylatable PAR3 mutants form protein clusters, and ectopically localize to the lateral membrane. Concomitance of clustering and ectopic localization suggests that PAR3 localization is a consequence of local clustering. We also demonstrate that unphosphorylatable forms of PAR3 exhibited a low molecular turnover and failed to coordinate rapid reconstruction of the tight junction, supporting that both the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated states are essential for the functional integrity of PAR3.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology