Phosphatidylinositol monophosphate-binding interface in the oomycete RXLR effector AVR3a is required for its stability in host cells to modulate plant immunity

Takashi Yaeno, Hua Li, Angela Chaparro-Garcia, Sebastian Schornack, Seizo Koshiba, Satoru Watanabe, Takanori Kigawa, Sophien Kamoun, Ken Shirasu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

111 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans causes potato late blight, one of the most economically damaging plant diseases worldwide. P. infestans produces AVR3a, an essential modular virulence effector with an N-terminal RXLR domain that is required for host-cell entry. In host cells, AVR3a stabilizes and inhibits the function of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CMPG1, a key factor in host immune responses including cell death triggered by the pathogen- derived elicitor protein INF1 elicitin. To elucidate the molecular basis of AVR3a effector function, we determined the structure of Phytophthora capsici AVR3a4, a close homolog of P. infestans AVR3a. Our structural and functional analyses reveal that the effector domain of AVR3a contains a conserved, positively charged patch and that this region, rather than the RXLR domain, is required for binding to phosphatidylinositol monophosphates (PIPs) in vitro. Mutations affecting PIP binding do not abolish AVR3a recognition by the resistance protein R3a but reduce its ability to suppress INF1-triggered cell death in planta. Similarly, stabilization of CMPG1 in planta is diminished by these mutations. The steadystate levels of non-PIP-binding mutant proteins in planta are reduced greatly, although these proteins are stable in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of a phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase results in reduction of AVR3a levels in planta. Our results suggest that the PIP-binding ability of the AVR3a effector domain is essential for its accumulation inside host cells to suppress CMPG1- dependent immunity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14682-14687
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume108
Issue number35
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Aug 30

Keywords

  • NMR
  • Programmed cell death
  • R protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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