Inherited GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) deficiencies (IGDs), a recently defined group of diseases, show a broad spectrum of symptoms. Hyperphosphatasia mental retardation syndrome, also known as Mabry syndrome, is a type of IGDs. There are at least 26 genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of GPI-anchored proteins; however, IGDs constitute a rare group of diseases, and correlations between the spectrum of symptoms and affected genes or the type of mutations have not been shown. Here, we report four newly identified and five previously described Japanese families with PIGO (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class O) deficiency. We show how the clinical severity of IGDs correlates with flow cytometric analysis of blood, functional analysis using a PIGO-deficient cell line, and the degree of hyperphosphatasia. The flow cytometric analysis and hyperphosphatasia are useful for IGD diagnosis, but the expression level of GPI-anchored proteins and the degree of hyperphosphatasia do not correlate, although functional studies do, with clinical severity. Compared with PIGA (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class A) deficiency, PIGO deficiency shows characteristic features, such as Hirschsprung disease, brachytelephalangy, and hyperphosphatasia. This report shows the precise spectrum of symptoms according to the severity of mutations and compares symptoms between different types of IGD.
- Hirschsprung disease
- glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)
- inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency (IGD)
ASJC Scopus subject areas