Purpose: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have proven efficacy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Their role in early-stage NSCLC has not been established. Our purpose was to explore the use of preoperative gefitinib in clinical stage I NSCLC to assess tumor response, toxicity, and clinical and molecular predictors of response. Patients and Methods: Patients received gefitinib 250 mg/d for up to 28 days, followed by mediastinoscopy and surgical resection in an open-label, single-arm study. Tumor response was evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Blood samples and tumor biopsies were collected and analyzed for transforming growth factor α level, EGFR protein expression, EGFR gene copy number, and EGFR (exon 19 to 21) and KRAS mutations. Results: Thirty-six patients completed preoperative treatment (median duration, 28 days; range, 27 to 30 days). Median follow-up time is 2.1 years (range, 0.86 to 3.46 years). Three patients experienced grade 3 toxicities (rash, diarrhea, and elevated ALT). Tumors demonstrated EGFR-positive protein expression in 83%, high gene copy number in 59%, EGFR mutations in 17%, and KRAS mutations in 17%. Tumor shrinkage was more frequent among women and nonsmokers. Partial response was seen in four patients (11%), and disease progression was seen in three patients (9%). The strongest predictor of response was EGFR mutation. Conclusion: Preoperative window therapy with gefitinib is a safe and feasible regimen in early NSCLC and provides a trial design that may better inform predictors of treatment response or sensitivity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research