Phase equilibria of Sn-In based micro-soldering alloys

I. Ohnuma, Y. Cui, X. J. Liu, Y. Inohana, S. Ishihara, H. Ohtani, R. Kainuma, K. Ishida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


The phase equilibria of Sn-In-X (X = Ag, Bi, Sb, Zn), the most basic information necessary for the development of Pb-free micro-soldering alloys, were studied using the CALPHAD method. Thermodynamic analyses for describing the Gibbs energies of the constituent phases were made by optimizing the obtained data on the experimental phase diagrams, and such data in the literature, including data on thermochemical properties. The present results combined with the thermodynamic database which was recently developed by our group provide various information on phase equilibria such as liquidus and solidus surfaces, isothermal and vertical section diagrams, mole fractions of the phase constitutions, etc., and thermodynamic properties such as activity, heat of mixing, surface energy, viscosity, etc., in multi-component soldering alloy systems including the elements of Pb, Bi, Sn, Sb, Cu, Ag, Zn, and In. Typical examples for the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of Sn-In-X ternary systems are shown. The application of the database to the alloy design for Pb-free solders is also presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1113-1121
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Oct

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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