Phase equilibria in liquid lead-M-oxygen (M=antimony, bismuth) system at 1173 and 1223K

Satoshi Itoh, Atsushi Kikuchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Phase relations and activities of the components in the liquid lead-antimony-oxygen and lead-bismuth-oxygen ternary systems, which are of fundamental importance for discussing the recovery of lead, antimony and bismuth from a used lead-battery, have been investigated at 1173 and 1223 K. The two liquid phases of metal and oxide were observed at the temperatures studied, and the tie lines indicating isoactivities were determined. The activities of PbO, SbO1.5 and Sb2O3 in the PbO-SbO1.5 and PbO-Sb2O3 pseudo-binary systems and also those of PbO, BiO1.5 and Bi2O3 in the PbO-BiO1.5 and PbO-Bi2O3 pseudo-binary systems were obtained by applying the Gibbs-Duhem equation to the phase relations of metal-oxide equilibria. The vapor pressures of lead, antimony and their oxides were calculated by using the activities to discuss the recovery of the components from a used lead-battery. As a result, an oxidation of antimony concentrated in an anode slime followed by evaporation as antimony oxide Sb4O 6 was found to be considerably effective for the recovery of antimony. The recovery of lead and bismuth is also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-304
Number of pages14
JournalHigh Temperature Materials and Processes
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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