Phase equilibria and the related properties of Sn-Ag-Cu based Pb-free solder alloys

I. Ohnuma, M. Miyashita, K. Anzai, X. J. Liu, H. Ohtani, R. Kainuma, K. Ishida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

144 Citations (Scopus)


We have recently developed a thermodynamic database for micro-soldering alloys which consists of the elements Pb, Bi, Sn, Sb, Cu, Ag, Zn, and In. In this paper, the phase equilibria and the related thermodynamic properties of the Sn-Ag-Cu base alloys are presented using this database, alloy systems being one of the promising candidates for Pb-free solders. The isothermal section diagrams of the Sn-Ag-Cu ternary system were experimentally determined by SEM-EDS, x-ray diffraction and metallographic techniques. Based on the present results as well as the previous data on phase boundaries and thermochemical properties, thermodynamic assessment of this system was carried out. The isothermal and vertical section diagrams, liquidus surface, mass fractions of the phase constitution, etc., were calculated. The predictions of surface energy and viscosity were also investigated. Moreover, a non-equilibrium solidification process using the Scheil model was simulated and compared with the equilibrium solidification behavior in some Sn-Ag-Cu base alloys. Calculated results based on the Scheil model were incorporated into a three-dimensional solidification simulation and the prediction of practical solidification procedures was performed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1137-1144
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Oct

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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