### Abstract

We give a perspective on the Hofstadter's butterfly (fractal energy spectrum in magnetic fields), which we have shown to arise specifically in three-dimensional (3D) systems in our previous work. (i) We first obtain the "phase diagram" on a parameter space of the transfer energies and the magnetic field for the appearance of Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum in anisotropic crystals in 3D, (ii) We show that the orientation of the external magnetic field can be arbitrary to have the 3D butterfly. (iii) We show that the butterfly is beyond the semiclassical description. (iv) The required magnetic field for a representative organic metal is estimated to be modest (∼40 T) if we adopt higher Landau levels for the butterfly. (v) We give a simpler way of deriving the topological invariants that represent the quantum Hall numbers (i.e., two Hall conductivity in 3D, σ_{xy}, σ_{zx}, in units of e^{2}/h).

Original language | English |
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Article number | 045310 |

Pages (from-to) | 453101-453109 |

Number of pages | 9 |

Journal | Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics |

Volume | 65 |

Issue number | 4 |

Publication status | Published - 2002 Jan 15 |

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics

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## Cite this

*Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics*,

*65*(4), 453101-453109. [045310].