Phase diagram for the Hofstadter butterfly and integer quantum Hall effect in three dimensions

Mikito Koshino, H. Aoki, T. Osada, K. Kuroki, S. Kagoshima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


We give a perspective on the Hofstadter's butterfly (fractal energy spectrum in magnetic fields), which we have shown to arise specifically in three-dimensional (3D) systems in our previous work. (i) We first obtain the "phase diagram" on a parameter space of the transfer energies and the magnetic field for the appearance of Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum in anisotropic crystals in 3D, (ii) We show that the orientation of the external magnetic field can be arbitrary to have the 3D butterfly. (iii) We show that the butterfly is beyond the semiclassical description. (iv) The required magnetic field for a representative organic metal is estimated to be modest (∼40 T) if we adopt higher Landau levels for the butterfly. (v) We give a simpler way of deriving the topological invariants that represent the quantum Hall numbers (i.e., two Hall conductivity in 3D, σxy, σzx, in units of e2/h).

Original languageEnglish
Article number045310
Pages (from-to)453101-453109
Number of pages9
JournalPhysical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Jan 15

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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