Perfect Bi4Ti3O12 single-crystal films via flux-mediated epitaxy

Ryota Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Yonezawa, Makoto Ohtani, Masashi Kawasaki, Kiyomi Nakajima, Toyohiro Chikyow, Hideomi Koinuma, Yuji Matsumoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Excellent crystallinity of material films and atomic control of their surface/interface, sufficient for the realization of their optimal physical properties, are technological premises for modern functional-device applications. Bi4Ti3O12 and related compounds attract much interest as highly insulating, ferroelectric materials for use in ferroelectric random-access memories. However, it has been difficult thus far for Bi4Ti3O12 films to satisfy such requirements when formed using vapor-phase epitaxy, owing to the high volatility of Bi in a vacuum. Here, we demonstrate that flux-mediated epitaxy is one of the most promising and widely applicable concepts to overcome this inevitable problem. The key point of this process is the appropriate selection of a multi-component flux system. A combinatorial approach has led to the successful discovery of the novel flux composition of Bi-Cu-O for Bi4Ti 3O12 single-crystal film growth. The perfect single-crystal nature of the stoichiometric Bi4Ti3O 12 film formed has been verified through its giant grain size and electric properties, equivalent to those of bulk single crystals. This demonstration has broad implications, opening up the possibility of preparing stoichiometric single-crystal oxide films via vapor-phase epitaxy, even if volatile constituents are required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)485-491
Number of pages7
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Mar 3
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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