Pb-free solders: Part III. Wettability testing of Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys with Sb additions

Z. Moser, W. Gasior, K. Bukat, J. Pstruś, R. Kisiel, J. Sitek, K. Ishida, Ikuo Ohnuma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)


Maximum bubble pressure, dilatometric, and meniscographic methods were used in the investigations of the surface tensions, densities, wetting times, wetting forces, contact angles, and solder-flux interfacial tensions of liquid Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys with various additions of Sb. Density and surface tension measurements were conducted in the temperature range 230 to 900°C. Surface tensions at 250°C were measured in air and under a protective atmosphere of Ar-H 2 and were combined with data from meniscographic studies done under air or with a protective flux. Meniscographic data with a nonwetted Teflon substrate provided data on solder-flux interfacial tensions, and meniscographic data with a Cu substrate allowed determinations of wetting times, wetting forces, and calculations of contact angles. Additions of Sb to quaternary Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys improve wettability, move the parameters closer to those of traditional solders, and affirm, as found in previous studies of Bi additions to the Sn-Ag-Cu near-eutectic compositions, that interfacial tensions and contact angles are the two parameters most important as a metric of wettability. However, in contrast to results found in studies of quaternary Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys, the changes in quinary Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi-Sb alloys of interfacial tensions and contact angles do not correlate with decreasing wetting time and increasing wetting force.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-438
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Oct 1


  • Density
  • Meniscographic studies
  • Pb-free solders
  • Surface tension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

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    Moser, Z., Gasior, W., Bukat, K., Pstruś, J., Kisiel, R., Sitek, J., Ishida, K., & Ohnuma, I. (2007). Pb-free solders: Part III. Wettability testing of Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys with Sb additions. Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion, 28(5), 433-438. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11669-007-9156-0