Pb-free solders: Part III. Wettability testing of Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys with Sb additions

Z. Moser, W. Gasior, K. Bukat, J. Pstruś, R. Kisiel, J. Sitek, K. Ishida, I. Ohnuma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Maximum bubble pressure, dilatometric, and meniscographic methods were used in the investigations of the surface tensions, densities, wetting times, wetting forces, contact angles, and solder-flux interfacial tensions of liquid Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys with various additions of Sb. Density and surface tension measurements were conducted in the temperature range 230 to 900°C. Surface tensions at 250°C were measured in air and under a protective atmosphere of Ar-H 2 and were combined with data from meniscographic studies done under air or with a protective flux. Meniscographic data with a nonwetted Teflon substrate provided data on solder-flux interfacial tensions, and meniscographic data with a Cu substrate allowed determinations of wetting times, wetting forces, and calculations of contact angles. Additions of Sb to quaternary Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys improve wettability, move the parameters closer to those of traditional solders, and affirm, as found in previous studies of Bi additions to the Sn-Ag-Cu near-eutectic compositions, that interfacial tensions and contact angles are the two parameters most important as a metric of wettability. However, in contrast to results found in studies of quaternary Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys, the changes in quinary Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi-Sb alloys of interfacial tensions and contact angles do not correlate with decreasing wetting time and increasing wetting force.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-438
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Oct


  • Density
  • Meniscographic studies
  • Pb-free solders
  • Surface tension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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