Pb-free solders: Part II. Application of ADAMIS database in modeling of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys with Bi additions

Ikuo Ohnuma, K. Ishida, Z. Moser, W. Ga̧sior, K. Bukat, J. Pstruś, R. Kisiel, J. Sitek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The ADAMIS database was used for calculation of the surface tension of the quaternary Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi liquid alloys by Butler's model. The resultant data were compared with those from the maximum bubble pressure measurements from Part I. The same thermodynamic database was next applied for the calculation of various phase equilibria. It was established that the Bi addition to the ternary Sn-Ag-Cu alloys (Sn-2.6Ag-0.46Cu and Sn-3.13Ag-0.74Cu in at.%; Sn-2.56Ag-0.26 Cu and Sn-2.86Ag-0.40Cu in mass%) causes lowering of the melting temperature and the surface tension to make the tested alloys closer to traditional Sn-Pb solders. The simulation of the solidification by Scheil's model showed that the alloys with the higher Bi concentration are characterized by the lifting-off failure due to the segregation of Bi at the solder/substrate boundary. Thus, in modeling of new Pb-free solders, a compromise among various properties should be taken into consideration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-254
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Jun 1


  • Phase equilibria
  • Simulation of solidification
  • Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi
  • Surface tension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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