Pb-free solders: Part 1. Wettability testing of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys with Bi additions

Z. Moser, W. Gąsior, K. Bukat, J. Pstruś, R. Kisiel, J. Sitek, K. Ishida, Ikuo Ohnuma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Maximum bubble pressure, dilatometric, and meniscographic methods were used in the investigations of the surface tension, density, wetting time, wetting force, contact angle, and interfacial tension of liquid alloys of Sn-Ag-Cu eutectic composition with various additions of Bi. Density and surface tension measurements were conducted in the temperature range 250-900°C. Surface tensions at 250°C measured under a protective atmosphere of Ar-H 2 were combined with data from meniscographic studies done under air or with a protective flux. The meniscographic data with a nonwetted teflon substrate provided data on interfacial tension (solder-flux), surface tension in air, and meniscographic data with a Cu substrate allowed determinations of wetting time, wetting force, and calculation of contact angle. The calculated wetting angles from meniscographic studies for binary Sn-Ag eutectic and two ternary Sn-Ag-Cu alloys were verified by separate measurements by the sessile drop method under a protective atmosphere with a Cu substrate. Additions of Bi to both ternary alloys improve the wettability and move the parameters somewhat closer to those of traditional Sn-Pb solders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-139
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Jan 1


  • Density
  • Meniscographic studies
  • Pb-free solders
  • Surface tension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Pb-free solders: Part 1. Wettability testing of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys with Bi additions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this