A palladium(0) complex catalyzes the addition reaction of a triarylphosphine and a protic acid to a 1-alkene, giving a 1-alkylphosphonium salt. The treatment of atmospheric ethylene, triphenylphosphine, and (CF3SO2)2NH in the presence of Pd2(dba)3·CHCl3 (dba = dibenzylideneacetone) (0.1 mol %) in chlorobenzene at 65 °C for 5 h gave ethylphosphonium salt in 98% isolated yield. The anti-Markovnikov adduct 1-propylphosphonium salt was obtained by the reaction of atmospheric propene in 95% yield. 1-Butene was converted to 1-butylphosphonium salt in 92% yield in the presence of 1 mol % catalyst. This reaction competed with olefin isomerization, and a mixture of 2-butene and 1-butene (>20:1) was recovered. The reactions of 1-pentene and 1-hexene with triphenylphosphine gave modest yields of the products. The less reactive 1-alkenes, however, reacted effectively with tris(p-chlorophenyl)phosphine. The inner olefins, 2- and 3-pentene also gave a 1-pentylphosphonium salt in high yields via rapid olefin migration.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry