Outcome of hemiplegic cerebral palsy born at term depends on its etiology

Yukihiro Kitai, Kazuhiro Haginoya, Satori Hirai, Kayo Ohmura, Kaeko Ogura, Takehiko Inui, Wakaba Endo, Yukimune Okubo, Mai Anzai, Yusuke Takezawa, Hiroshi Arai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To elucidate the etiology and its relationship to the outcomes of hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP). Participants and methods: MR images and outcomes of 156 children with HCP born at term and older than three years were investigated in two major centers for cerebral palsy in Japan. Etiologies were classified into perinatal ischemic stroke (PIS), cerebral dysgenesis (CD), and others. PIS was divided into periventricular venous infarction (PVI) and two types of arterial infarction; middle cerebral artery infarction (MCAI) and deep gray matter infarction (DGMI). Initial signs and the time of presentation were investigated among the three types of PIS. As functional outcomes, laterality of paresis, age at initial walk, affected hand's function, intellectual development, and occurrence of epilepsy were compared among all the four types. Results: Etiology: PIS was found in 106 children (68%), while CD accounted for 28 (18%). Among PIS, venous infarction was more common than arterial infarction (62:44). Outcomes: PVI revealed later presentation of motor asymmetry and more involvement of lower extremity as the initial sign among PIS groups. Only MCAI showed right-side predominance in laterality of paresis. DGMI related to better intellectual development and PVI showed lower occurrence of epilepsy, while there was no significant difference in affected hand's function among the four groups. PIS groups showed significantly earlier attainment of independent walk, better intellectual development, and lower occurrence of epilepsy than CD. Conclusions: PVI was the most common cause of HCP born at term, and the etiology closely related to the initial signs of hemiplegia and overall outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-273
Number of pages7
JournalBrain and Development
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Mar 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Arterial infarction
  • Etiology
  • Hemiplegic cerebral palsy
  • Outcome
  • Periventricular venous infarction
  • Presumed perinatal ischemic stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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