Outcome and prognostic factors after lung transplantation for bronchiectasis other than cystic fibrosis

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Abstract

Background: While lung transplant (LTX) can be an effective therapy to provide the survival benefit in selected populations, post-transplant outcome in LTX recipients with bronchiectasis other than cystic fibrosis (CF) has been less studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, often associated with exacerbations in bronchiectasis, is the most common micro-organism isolated from LTX recipients. We aimed to see the outcomes of patients with bronchiectasis other than CF after LTX and seek the risk factors associated with pre- and post-transplant Pseudomonas status. Methods: Patients who underwent LTX at Tohoku University Hospital between January 2000 and December 2020 were consecutively included into the retrospective cohort study. Pre- and post-transplant prevalence of Pseudomonas colonization between bronchiectasis and other diseases was reviewed. Post-transplant outcomes (mortality and the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD)) were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards and time-to-event outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: LTX recipients with bronchiectasis experienced a high rate of pre- and post-transplant Pseudomonas colonization compared to other diseases with statistical significance (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Nevertheless, long-term survival in bronchiectasis was as great as non-bronchiectasis (Log-rank p = 0.522), and the bronchiectasis was not a trigger for death (HR 1.62, 95% CI 0.63–4.19). On the other hand, the chance of CLAD onset in bronchiectasis was comparable to non-bronchiectasis (Log-rank p = 0.221), and bronchiectasis was not a predictor of the development of CLAD (HR 1.88, 95% CI 0.65–5.40). Conclusions: Despite high prevalence of pre- and post-transplant Pseudomonas colonization, the outcome in LTX recipients with bronchiectasis other than CF was comparable to those without bronchiectasis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number261
JournalBMC Pulmonary Medicine
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

Keywords

  • Bronchiectasis
  • Chronic lung allograft dysfunction
  • Lung transplant
  • Non-tuberculous mycobacteria
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Sinusitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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