Organic extracts of urban air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells)

Seung Min Oh, Ha Ryong Kim, Yong Joo Park, Soo Yeun Lee, Kyu Hyuck Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

137 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Traffic is a major source of particulate matter (PM), and ultrafine particulates and traffic intensity probably contribute significantly to PM-related health effects. As a strong relationship between air pollution and motor vehicle-originated pollutants has been shown to exist, air pollution genotoxicity studies of urban cities are steadily increasing. In Korea, the death rate caused by lung cancer is the most rapidly increased cancer death rate in the past 10 years. In this study, genotoxicity of PM2.5 (<2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter particles) collected from the traffic area in Suwon City, Korea, was studied using cultured human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) as a model system for the potential inhalation health effects. Organic extract of PM2.5 (CE) generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation in a dose-dependent manner (1μg/cm3-50μg/cm3). In the acid-base-neutral fractionation of PM2.5, neutral samples including the aliphatic (F3), aromatic (F4) and slightly polar (F5) fractions generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation. These genotoxic effects were significantly blocked by scavenging agents [superoxide dismutase (SOD), sodium selenite (SS), mannitol (M), catalase (CAT)]. In addition, in the modified Comet assay using endonucleases (FPG and ENDOIII), CE and its fractions (F3, F4, and F5) increased DNA breakage compared with control groups, indicating that CE and fractions of PM2.5 induced oxidative DNA damage. These results clearly suggest that PM2.5 collected in the Suwon traffic area has genotoxic effects and that reactive oxygen species may play a distinct role in these effects. In addition, aliphatic/chlorinated hydrocarbons, PAH/alkylderivatives, and nitro-PAH/ketones/quinones may be important causative agents of the genotoxic effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)142-151
Number of pages10
JournalMutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Volume723
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Aug 16

Keywords

  • Bioassay-directed fractionation
  • CBMN assay
  • Comet assay
  • Genotoxicity
  • Oxidative stress
  • PM2.5

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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