Oral Ferric Citrate Hydrate Associated With Less Oxidative Stress Than Intravenous Saccharated Ferric Oxide

Masaaki Nakayama, Yoshihiro Tani, Wan Jun Zhu, Kimio Watanabe, Keitaro Yokoyama, Masafumi Fukagawa, Takashi Akiba, Myles Wolf, Hideki Hirakata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: A recent study suggested that orally dosed ferric citrate hydrate (FC) corrects renal anemia in patients on hemodialysis (HD), suggesting biological differences in effects of iron supplementation using different routes of administration. To address this issue, the present study compared oral FC with i.v. saccharated ferric oxide (FO) in stable HD patients. Methods: Participants comprised 6 patients administered 3 consecutive protocols in the first HD session of the week in a fasting state: nothing given, as control (C); oral load of FC (480 mg iron), and 5 minutes of i.v. FO (40 mg iron). Iron dynamics in the body and biological impact on redox-inflammation status during the study (6 hours) were examined. Results: Significant increases in serum iron and transferrin saturation were seen with both FC and FO. Regarding total iron-binding capacity as the sum of serum iron and unsaturated iron-binding capacity, no changes were found in FC, whereas significant increases were seen in FO (appearance of non–transferrin-binding iron [NTBI]), despite the lower serum iron levels in FO. Compared with C, increases were seen in serum myeloperoxidase (oxidative marker) with accompanying significant decreases in thioredoxin (antioxidant) in FO, whereas no changes were found in FC. Conclusion: Oral FC differs from i.v. FO in areas such as less NTBI generation and less induction of oxidative stress. The result indicates potential clinical benefits of oral FC in terms of iron supplementation for renal anemia in HD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)364-373
Number of pages10
JournalKidney International Reports
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Mar


  • FGF23
  • ferric citrate hydrate
  • hemodialysis
  • iron
  • oxidative stress
  • renal anemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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