Optimization of the Alkyl Linker of TO Base Surrogate in Triplex-Forming PNA for Enhanced Binding to Double-Stranded RNA

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17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A series of triplex-forming peptide nucleic acid (TFP) probes carrying a thiazole orange (TO) base surrogate through an alkyl linker was synthesized, and the interactions between these so-called tFIT probes and purine-rich sequences within double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were examined. We found that the TO base surrogate linker significantly affected both the binding affinity and the fluorescence response upon triplex formation with the target dsRNA. Among the probes examined, the TO base surrogate connected through the propyl linker in the tFIT probes increased the binding affinity by a factor of ten while maintaining its function as the fluorescent universal base. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments revealed that the increased binding affinity resulted from the gain in the binding enthalpy, which could be explained by the enhanced π-stacking interaction between the TO base surrogate and the dsRNA part of the triplex. We expect that these results will provide a molecular basis for designing strong binding tFIT probes for fluorescence sensing of various kinds of purine-rich dsRNAs sequences including those carrying a pyrimidine-purine inversion. The obtained data also offers a new insight into further development of the universal bases incorporated in TFP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4079-4088
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Volume23
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Mar 23

Keywords

  • RNA recognition
  • cyanine dye
  • double-stranded RNA
  • fluorescent probes
  • peptide nucleic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry

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