Operation and flame observation of micro gas turbine firing ammonia

Norihiko Iki, Osamu Kurata, Takayuki Matsunuma, Takahiro Inoue, Taku Tsujimura, Hirohide Furutani, Hideaki Kobayashi, Akihiro Hayakawa

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A demonstration test with the aim to show the potential of ammonia-fired power plant is planned using a micro gas turbine. 50kW class turbine system firing kerosene is selected as a base model. Over 40kW of power generation was achieved by firing ammonia gas only. Over 40kW of power generation was also achieved by firing mixture of ammonia and methane. However ammonia gas supply increases NOx in the exhaust gas dramatically. NOx concentration in the exhaust gas of gas turbine reached at over 600ppm. In the case of the gas turbine operation firing kerosene-ammonia with 31kW of power generation at 75,000rpm of rotating speed, the LHV (Lower Heating Value) ratio of ammonia to the total supplied fuel was changed from 0% to 100% in detail. NO emission increases rapidly to around 400ppm with ammonia at 7% of LHV ratio of ammonia. Then NO emission increases gradually to 600ppm with ammonia at 27% of LHV ratio of ammonia. NO emission has the peak around 60% of LHV ratio of ammonia. NO emission decreases below 500ppm at 100% of LHV ratio of ammonia. The gas turbine operation firing methane-ammonia with 31kW of power generation at 75,000rpm of rotating speed was also tried. NO emission increases rapidly to around 470ppm with ammonia at 7% of LHV ratio of ammonia. Then NO emission increases gradually to 600ppm with ammonia around 30% of LHV ratio of ammonia. NO emission has the peak at 65% of LHV ratio of ammonia. NO emission decreases below 500ppm at 100% of LHV ratio of ammonia. Since the ammonia flame in the prototype combustor seems to be inhomogeneous, ammonia combustion in the prototype combustor may have high NOx region and low NOx region. Therefore there is a possibility of low-NOx combustion. Flame observation was planned to know combustion state for improvement toward the low NOx combustor. Flame observation from the combustor exit was available by extending the combustor exit with the adaptor of the bent coaxial tubes and the quartz window. Swirling flames of ammonia, methane and methane-ammonia were observed near the center axis of the combustor. Flame observation at 39.1kW of power generation was succeeded. In the case of the flame observation, fuel consumption increased due to increase of the heat loss from the combustor. The emissions of NO and NH3 clearly depend on the combustion inlet temperature at 75,000rpm of rotating speed. The emissions of NO and NH3 in the case of the flame observation setting corresponds to the emission in the case of the normal setting at the condition that the power output is 11.2kW lower.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMicroturbines, Turbochargers and Small Turbomachines; Steam Turbines
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ISBN (Electronic)9780791850954
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1
EventASME Turbo Expo 2017: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, GT 2017 - Charlotte, United States
Duration: 2017 Jun 262017 Jun 30

Publication series

NameProceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo
Volume8

Other

OtherASME Turbo Expo 2017: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, GT 2017
CountryUnited States
CityCharlotte
Period17/6/2617/6/30

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

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