On-chip disease models of the human retina

Li Jiun Chen, Bibek Raut, Hirokazu Kaji

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Due to the fact that ~80% of all sensory input is received via the eyes, suffering from chronic retinal diseases that lead to blindness causes a significant decrease in the quality of life. In addition, retinal diseases are common in the elderly; developing pathological analyses and treatments for retinal diseases have become an urgent issue especially in superaging countries such as Japan. Although evaluation of drug candidates against retinal diseases has been done on animal models, serious concerns arise regarding the ethics and costs in addition to the limitations of translating data from animal models to clinical settings. Pathophysiology of neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is complicated due to various factors involved, which include but are not limited to aging, oxygen concentration, energy metabolism, pressure, blood flow, and genetics. For more reliable outcomes, it is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms of eye diseases. in vitro cell culture models, an alternative to animal models, enable investigations on specific molecule of interest and simply recapitulate complex and chronic conditions. Recently, studies on organ-on-a-chip for drug discovery have been extensively carried out. This chapter describes organ-on-a-chip approaches that target the retinal tissue particularly focusing on the blood-retinal barriers and related diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMicrofluidic Cell Culture Systems
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9780128136713
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 1


  • Blood-retinal barrier (BRB)
  • Choroidal neovascularization
  • Drug delivery system
  • Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)
  • Retina-on-a-chip
  • Retinopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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