Observation of phototropic responses in the liverwort marchantia polymorpha

Aino Komatsu, Ryuichi Nishihama, Takayuki Kohchi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The liverwort species, Marchantia polymorpha, shows environment-dependent morphological plasticity throughout its life cycle. Thalli, representing the predominant body form throughout most of this bryophyte’s life cycle, grow with repeated dichotomous branching at the apex and develop horizontally under sufficient light intensity. Spores, after germination, produce a mass of cells, called sporelings, which then grow into thalli. Both thalli and sporelings, if grown under weak light conditions, form narrow shapes, and their apices grow toward the light source. These phototropic responses are specific to blue light and dependent on the blue-light receptor phototropin. This chapter provides several basic procedures, along with some tips, for designing and performing experiments with M. polymorpha to observe their phototropic responses, as well as methods for observing the localization of the phototropin “Mpphot” with a fluorescent protein tag.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745


  • Blue light
  • Gemmaling
  • Liverwort
  • Marchantia polymorpha
  • Phototropic responses
  • Phototropin
  • Sporeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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