Numerical Study of the Effect of Submerged Vertical Breakwater Dimension on Wave Hydrodynamics and Vortex Generation

Fatemeh Hajivalie, Abbas Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Jeremy D. Bricker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The effect of submerged vertical breakwater dimension on wave hydrodynamics and vortex generation around the breakwater is investigated with numerical modeling via two dimensionless parameters: the breakwater dimensionless submergence depth (a/Hi; a-the breakwater depth of submergence) and the Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC = Hiπ/Lbw; Hi-incident wave-height and Lbw-breakwater width). In the numerical model, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a standard k-ε turbulence closure model were implemented; the free surface was traced using the VOF method. A total of 10 different simulations with different KC number and breakwater submergence depth were conducted for this study. The results revealed that the transmission coefficient increases with increasing a/Hi and KC number, but that the effect of the KC number is not linear like the relation to a/Hi. For the waves modeled, the transmission coefficient increases dramatically with increasing the KC number until the KC number reaches a critical value, this critical value is observed when breakwater width is equal to a quarter of wavelength. This gives a hint in design of breakwater width. Turbulence intensity decreases with increasing a/Hi and KC on the seaside of the breakwater while it increases especially near the bed on the leeside of the breakwater; this can increase scour risk on the leeside of the breakwater. The optimum a/Hi for both, high-energy dissipation rate and low risk of scour tends to 3.5 for KC ≈ 1.0.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1550009
JournalCoastal Engineering Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Sep 19


  • KC number
  • RANS equations
  • VOF method
  • dimensionless submergence depth
  • k-ε model
  • transmission coefficient

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Ocean Engineering

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Numerical Study of the Effect of Submerged Vertical Breakwater Dimension on Wave Hydrodynamics and Vortex Generation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this