The high performance of supercomputing systems has made it feasible to clarify multi-scale physics of nano-material processes in thermal plasma environments with thermofluidic and electromagnetic interactions. In this chapter, two challenges related to the thermal plasma processing of nanoparticle fabrication are presented as new applications of supercomputing. The growth process of titanium boride nanoparticles from the precursory binary vapors of titanium and boron is computed using a unique mathematical model. In consequence, the collective and simultaneous growth behavior through nucleation, co-condensation and coagulation is clarified. The 3-D complex structure of the thermofluid field in/around an argon inductively coupled thermal plasma (ICTP) has also been revealed. The higher-temperature region has larger vortices, whereas the lower-temperature flow forms smaller eddies. Because a high-temperature plasma has a high electrical conductivity, the Lorentz forces are generated there; and consequently recirculating zones are produced. In addition, it is also clarified that turbulent and laminar regions co-exist and form a complicated flow field in the ICTP torch.