Numerical Analysis of Carbon Monoxide–Hydrogen Gas Reduction of Iron Ore in a Packed Bed by an Euler–Lagrange Approach

Shungo Natsui, Tatsuya Kikuchi, Ryosuke O. Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


In recent years, various methods to decrease carbon dioxide emissions from iron and steel making industries have been developed. The latest blast furnace operation design is intended to induce the low reducing agent operation, highly reactive material is considered a promising way to improve reaction efficiency. Another method utilizes hydrogen in the blast furnace process for highly efficient reduction. Mathematical modeling may help to predict complex in-furnace phenomena, including momentum, heat, and mass transport. However, the current macroscopic continuum model gives no information on the individual particles. In this work, a new approach based on the discrete element method was introduced to consider the interaction between particles under fluid flow in accordance with the arrangement and properties of individual particles. We used an Euler–Lagrange method to precisely understand the influence of the reaction conditions on the behavior of coke and ore particles in three dimensions. The heterogeneity of the reaction rate and temperature distribution was observed to be influenced by the particle arrangement. The endothermic and exothermic reactions influenced each other in the packed bed. Temperature distributions nearly correlated with the gas velocity distribution because convection processes greatly affected the reaction rate. Although convection heat transfer was not a dominant issue in the packed bed, promotion of the reaction by a gas flow was effective.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2395-2413
Number of pages19
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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