We present a numerical lattice quantum chromodynamics calculation of isovector form factors and the first few moments of the isovector structure functions of the nucleon. The calculation employs two degenerate dynamical flavors of domain-wall fermions, resulting in good control of chiral symmetry breaking. Nonperturbative renormalization of the relevant quark currents is performed where necessary. The DBW2 gauge action is used to further improve the chiral behavior while maintaining a reasonable physical lattice volume. The inverse lattice spacing, a-1, is approximately 1.7 GeV. Degenerate up and down dynamical quark masses of approximately 1, 3/4 and 1/2 times the strange quark mass are used. The physical volume of the lattice is about (1.9fm)3. The ratio of the isovector vector to axial charges, gA/gV, tends to a lower value than the experimental value as the quark mass is reduced toward the physical point. Momentum-transfer dependences of the isovector vector, axial, induced-tensor and induced-pseudoscalar form factors are calculated. The Goldberger-Treiman relation holds at low momentum transfer and yields an estimation of the pion-nucleon coupling, gπNN=15.5(1.4), where the quoted error is only statistical. We find that the flavor nonsinglet quark momentum fraction x u-d and quark helicity fraction x Δu-Δd overshoot their experimental values after linear chiral extrapolation. We discuss possible systematic errors for this discrepancy. An estimate for transversity, 1 δu-δd=0.93(6) in MS̄ at 2 GeV, is obtained and a twist-3 polarized moment, d1, appears small, suggesting that the Wandzura-Wilczek relation holds approximately. We discuss in detail the systematic errors in the calculation, with particular attention paid to finite volume, excited-state contamination, and chiral extrapolations.
|Journal||Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology|
|Publication status||Published - 2008 Jul 18|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)