Normative data on tests for frontal lobe functions: Trail Making Test, Verbal fluency, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Keio version)

Mitsuyo Abe, Kyoko Suzuki, Kazue Okada, Rina Miura, Toshikatsu Fujii, Etsuro Mori, Atsushi Yamadori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Trail Making Test (TMT Part A, B), Verbal fluency test (phonemic, semantic) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Keio version: KWCST) are useful to evaluate frontal lobe functions and are commonly used in clinical settings. However, few normative data for aged Japanese have been reported. We collected normative data on these tests in elderly population, and examined the effects of age and education on the performance of these tests. Seventy-six healthy adults, aged 45 to 74 years, participated in this study. Subjects were classified into three groups by age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74). Fifty-five subjects repeated the same tests after 6 months to examine the test-retest reliability. Performance of the TMT Part A was correlated with age (r=0.530) and that of Part B was correlated with age (r=0.500) and education (r=-0.340). Performance on both phonemic and semantic fluency was correlated with education (phonemic: r=0.357, semantic: r=0.279). Number of Categories Achieved (CA) of KWCST was correlated with education (r=0.376). The test-retest reliability of all these tests except for semantic verbal fluency and difficulty maintaining set (DMS) of KWCST was good enough for longitudinal studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)567-574
Number of pages8
JournalBrain and Nerve
Volume56
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jul 1

Keywords

  • Normative data
  • Trail making test
  • Verbal fluency
  • Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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