Nonlinear detection of ultrasonic vibrations in an atomic force microscope

Oleg Kolosov, Kazushi Yamanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

250 Citations (Scopus)


A new method is proposed to detect ultrasonic vibration of the samples in the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) using nonlinearity in the tip-sample interaction force curve F(z). Small amplitude ultrasonic vibration less than 0.2 nm is detected as an average displacement of a cantilever. This Ultrasonic Force Mode (UFM) of operation is advantageous in detecting ultrasonic vibration with frequencies up to the GHz range, using an AFM cantilever with a resonant frequency below 100 kHz. It was found that a strong repulsive force is acting after an ultrasonic amplitude threshold of the is crossed, with the amplitude of this threshold depending upon the average force applied to the tip.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)L1095-L1098
JournalJapanese journal of applied physics
Issue number8 A
Publication statusPublished - 1993 Aug
Externally publishedYes


  • Atomic force microscope
  • Nonlinear atomic force microscope
  • Nonlinear vibrations
  • UFM
  • Ultrasonic force mode
  • Ultrasonics
  • Viscoelastic properties evaluation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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