Coronatine (1), a small-molecular virulence factor produced by plant-pathogenic bacteria, promotes bacterial infection by inducing the opening of stomatal pores, the major route of bacterial entry into the plant, via the jasmonate-mediated COI1-JAZ signaling pathway. However, this pathway is also important for multiple plant functions, including defense against wounding by herbivorous insects. Thus, suppression of the COI1-JAZ signaling pathway to block bacterial infection would concomitantly impair plant defense against herbivorous wounding. Here, we report additional, COI1-JAZ-independent, action of 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells. First, we found that a stereoisomer of 1 regulates the movement of Arabidopsis guard cells without affecting COI1-JAZ signaling. Second, we found using alkyne-tagged Raman imaging (ATRI) that 1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of living guard cells of Arabidopsis. The use of arc6 mutant lacking chloroplast formation was pivotal to circumvent the issue of autofluorescence during ATRI. These findings indicate that 1 has an ER-related action on Arabidopsis stomata that bypasses the COI1-JAZ signaling module. It may be possible to suppress the action of 1 on stomata without impairing plant defense responses against herbivores.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)