Non-invasive screening using ventilatory gas analysis to distinguish between chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension

Mina Akizuki, Koichiro Sugimura, Tatsuo Aoki, Takaaki Kakihana, Shunsuke Tatebe, Saori Yamamoto, Haruka Sato, Kimio Satoh, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Masahiro Kohzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and objective: Clinical presentations associated with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) at rest are highly similar. Differentiating between CTEPH and PAH using non-invasive techniques remains challenging. Thus, we examined whether analysis of ventilatory gas in response to postural changes can be useful as a non-invasive screening method for pulmonary hypertension (PH), and help differentiate CTEPH from PAH. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 90 patients with suspected PH and performed right heart catheterization, ventilation/perfusion scan and ventilatory gas analysis. Various pulmonary function parameters were examined in the supine and sitting postures, and postural changes were calculated (Δ(supine − sitting)). Results: In total, 25 patients with newly diagnosed PAH, 40 patients with newly diagnosed CTEPH and 25 non-PH patients were included. ΔEnd-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2) was significantly lower in patients with CTEPH and PAH than in non-PH patients (both P < 0.001). ΔPETCO2 < 0 mm Hg could effectively differentiate PH from non-PH (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.969, sensitivity = 89%, specificity = 100%). Postural change from sitting to supine significantly increased the ratio of ventilation to CO2 production (VE/VCO2) in the CTEPH group (P < 0.001). By contrast, VE/VCO2 significantly decreased in the PAH group (P = 0.001). Notably, CTEPH presented with higher ΔVE/VCO2 than PAH, although no differences were observed in haemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters between the two groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, ΔVE/VCO2 > 0.8 could effectively differentiate CTEPH from PAH (AUC = 0.849, sensitivity = 78%, specificity = 88%). Conclusion: Postural changes in ventilatory gas analysis are useful as a non-invasive bedside evaluation to screen for the presence of PH and distinguish between CTEPH and PAH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)427-434
Number of pages8
JournalRespirology
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Apr 1

Keywords

  • cardiovascular diseases
  • pulmonary circulation, pulmonary hypertension
  • pulmonary gas exchange
  • pulmonary ventilation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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