Nitrogen removal from wastewater by the partial nitritation/anammox (PNA) technology is promising from both economic and environmental perspectives. However, this technology has not been popularized in the mainstream because of low biomass retention and the growth of the nitrite oxidizing bacteria. In this study, a one-stage PNA process with hydroxyapatite (HAP)-enhanced granules was used to treat effluent from a mainstream anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The HAP-enhanced reactor allowed an enriched high biomass of 6.9 ± 0.2 g/L at a low hydraulic retention time of 2 h. A nitrogen removal efficiency of 80 ± 6.0 %, a nitrogen removal rate of 0.36 ± 0.05 kg/m3/d and a COD removal efficiency of 54 ± 15 % were achieved stably, leading to a low total nitrogen concentration of 8.5 ± 2.7 mg/L and a low COD concentration of 19.7 ± 5.9 mg/L in the effluent. Anammox bacteria of Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis and ammonium oxidizing bacteria of Nitrosomonas were found to be the two most predominant bacteria.
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Mar|
- One-stage PNA
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal