The contingency of sensory feedback to one’s actions is essential for the sense of agency, and experimental violation of this contingency is a standard paradigm in the neuroscience of self-awareness and schizophrenia. However, neural responses to this violation have arbitrarily been interpreted either as activation of the system generating forward prediction (agency-error account) or decreased suppression of processing of predictable input (prediction-error account). In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the regions responsive to auditory contingency errors were examined if they exhibited responses to an isolated auditory stimulus and to passive-contingency delay, which the prediction-error account expects. These responses were observed only in the auditory association cortex in the right superior temporal gyrus. Several multimodal and motor-association cortices did not exhibit these responses, suggesting their relevance to the agency-error account. Thus, we formulated the coexistence and dissociation of two accounts in neural contingency-error responses.
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