We found a novel primate lentivirus in mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx). To clarify the evolutionary relationships and transmission patterns of human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV), we screened blood samples from 30 wild-born healthy Cameroonian mandrills. Five (16.7%) of them were seropositive for SIV. Three SIV strains were isolated from the five seropositive mandrills by cocultivation of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with PBMCs of rhesus macaques, a human T cell line (M8166), and/or a cynomolgus macaque T cell line (HSC-F). One of the newly isolated SIV strains was intravenously inoculated into two rhesus macaques and resulted in chronic infection. In the SIV-infected macaques at 45 weeks after inoculation, we observed a mild decline in the number of peripheral CD4+lymphocytes, lymphadenopathy, and blastic follicular dendritic cells with mild follicular hyperplasia in the peripheral lymph nodes. A phylogenetic analysis based on the pol sequence showed that the newly found SIVs from Cameroonian mandrills did not cluster with SIVmndGB1, which is the former representative strain of SIVmnd. The SIVmnds from Cameroon formed a new, independent lineage that branched before the root of the HIV-1/SIVcpz lineage with 996 of 1000 bootstrap replications. They clustered host specifically, and exhibited about 16.9% diversity at the level of nucleotide sequence among Cameroonian SIVmnd strains. These results indicate that the SIVmnds isolated in Cameroon are a novel type of SIVmnd and have infected Cameroonian mandrills for a long time. We therefore designated the Cameroonian SIVmnd as SIVmnd type 2 and redesignated SIVmndGB1 as SIVmnd type 1. To date, M. sphinx is the only primate species other than humans that is naturally infected with two different types of SIV.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases