The parenteral injection of ciprofloxacin (CPFX), a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug, was approved in September 2000 and a re-examination period of 6 years was set at that time. As a special investigation to apply for re-examination of this drug, it has been planned to conduct 3 nationwide surveillances during the re-examination period by collecting clinically isolated bacteria from patients with severe infections, to whom the drug was mainly indicated, and examining drug susceptibilities of the bacteria to various parenteral antimicrobial drugs including CPFX. This time, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various parenteral antimicrobial drugs including CPFX against 1,220 strains isolated from patients with severe infections by the micro-liquid dilution method and compared susceptibilities of various clinically isolated bacteria to CPFX with those to other antimicrobial drugs. Gram-positive bacteria were less susceptible to CPFX than to carbapenems except 2 bacterial species, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus avium but susceptibilities of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis to CPFX were comparable to those to cefozopran. Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to CPFX did not differ among ampicillin (ABPC)-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC of ABPC: <0.25 μg/ml), ABPC-intermediate S. pneumoniae (MIC of ABPC: 0.25∼2 μg/ml) and ABPC-resistant S. pneumoniae (MIC of ABPC: ≧4 μg/ml) (MIC 90 of CPFX: 1 μg/ml) and a decrease in the antimicrobial activity seen among cephem and carbapenem antimicrobial drugs against penicillin-intermediate strains was not noted with CPFX. Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to CPFX similarly to carbapenems and the MIC 90 values of CPFX were in the range from ≦0.063 to 2 μg/ml against strains except Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most susceptible to CPFX among the antibacterial drugs examined and the MIC 90 was 2 μg/ml. CPFX also showed the lowest MIC 90 value (0.5 μg/ml) against β-lactam-resistant P. aeruginosa among the drugs examined. When extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production and class B β-lactamase production were examined in 439 strains of Enterobacteriaceae and 168 strains of glucose non-fermentative bacteria out of the Gram-negative bacteria collected this time, 3 strains (0.49%) producing ESBL and 7 strains (1.15%) producing class B β-lactamase were found. The MIC range of CPFX to these 10 strains was between ≦0.063 to 8 μg/ml and 5 strains among those showed susceptibilities (MIC of CPFX: 1 μg/ml) based on the NCCLS breakpoint. CPFX also showed a satisfactory result concerning susceptibilities of major causal bacteria based on the report of the committee of Japan Society of Chemotherapy on the standard method for determination of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, the breakpoint of pneumonia. Furthermore, susceptibilities of various bacteria isolated clinically from patients with severe infections this time did not differ much from the result of the nationwide surveillance which we conducted in 1997. Thus, it was concluded that the antimicrobial activity of CPFX was maintained in the post-marketing surveillance for its parenteral preparation.
|Number of pages||28|
|Journal||Japanese Journal of Antibiotics|
|Publication status||Published - 2003 Dec 1|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases