A new type of scanning nonlinear dielectric microscope (SNDM) probe ( ε 311 type probe) and a system to measure the ferroelectric polarization component parallel to the surface has been developed. This is achieved by measuring a nonlinear dielectric constant ε 311 instead of ε 333 , which is measured in conventional SNDM. Experimental results show that the probe can sufficiently detect the polarization direction parallel to the surface with high spatial resolution. Moreover, we propose an advanced measurement technique using rotating electric field, which can be applied to measure a three-dimensional polarization vectors.
- Ferroelectric materials
- Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy
- Three-dimensional measurement of ferroelectric polarization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics