Optogenetic techniques are powerful tools for manipulating biological processes in identified cells using light under high temporal and spatial resolutions. Here, we describe an optogenetic training strategy to promote morphological maturation and functional development of skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Optical stimulation with a rhythmical frequency facilitates specific structural alignment of sarcomeric proteins. Optical stimulation also depolarizes the membrane potential, and induces contractile responses in synchrony with the given pattern of light pulses. These results suggest that optogenetic techniques can be employed to manipulate activity-dependent processes during myogenic development and control contraction of photosensitive skeletal muscle cells with high temporal and special precision.