Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) commonly exhibit hypercoagulability. Increased levels of uremic toxins cause thrombogenicity by increasing tissue factor (TF) expression and activating the extrinsic coagulation cascade. TF is induced in monocytes and macrophages under pathological conditions, such as inflammatory diseases. However, the role of monocyte myeloid cell TF in CKD progression remains unclear. We aimed to clarify this issue, and the present study found that patients with CKD had elevated levels of D-dimer, a marker of fibrin degradation, which was associated with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate and increased serum levels of uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate. In vitro studies showed that several uremic toxins increased cellular TF levels in monocytic THP-1 cells. Mice with TF specifically deleted in myeloid cells were fed an adenine diet to cause uremic kidney injury. Myeloid TF deletion reduced tubular injury and pro-inflammatory gene expression in the kidneys of adenine-induced CKD but did not improve renal function as measured by plasma creatinine or blood urea nitrogen. Collectively, our findings suggest a novel concept of pathogenesis of coagulation-mediated kidney injury, in which elevated TF levels in monocytes under uremic conditions is partly involved in the development of CKD.
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