Multimodal functional analysis platform: 3. Spherical treadmill system for small animals

Norihiro Katayama, Mitsuyuki Nakao, Tetsu Tanaka, Makoto Osanai, Hajime Mushiake

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In the application of advanced neuroscience techniques including optogenetics to small awake animals, it is often necessary to restrict the animal’s movements. A spherical treadmill is a beneficial option that enables virtual locomotion of body- or head-restrained small animals. Besides, it has a wide application range, including virtual reality experiments. This chapter describes the fundamentals of a spherical treadmill for researchers who want to start experiments with it. First, we describe the physical aspect of a spherical treadmill based on the simple mechanical analysis. Next, we explain the basics of data logging and preprocessing for behavioral analysis. We also provide simple computer programs that work for the purpose.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • Behavioral analysis
  • Data logger
  • Effective mass
  • Passive treadmill
  • Processing
  • Python
  • Resampling
  • Smoothing
  • Spherical treadmill
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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