Multi-targeted therapy for refractory eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis characterized by intracerebral hemorrhage and cardiomyopathy: a case-based review

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Abstract

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder classified under anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, predominantly affecting small- to medium-sized vessels, characterized by asthma, eosinophilia, and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Most patients with EGPA experience peripheral neuropathy, whereas intracerebral hemorrhage is rare as EGPA-related presentation in central nervous system involvement, causing severe morbidity and mortality. Here, we present a 45-year-old man with refractory EGPA who developed intracerebral hemorrhage as the first manifestation, followed by cardiac involvement. This patient with a history of bronchial asthma developed a right putaminal hemorrhage caused by EGPA. Although intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) and mepolizumab (MPZ) induced remission, relapse was frequently observed. Subsequently, he developed cardiomyopathy despite administration of rituximab (RTX) substituted from IVCY and MPZ. Combined immunosuppressive therapy, including IVCY, MPZ, and RTX was required to inhibit vascular inflammation, leading to sustained remission. We review previously published literature while focusing on the clinical features of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage caused by EGPA and describe clinical characteristics for detecting EGPA in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, emphasizing rapid evaluation and recognition of EGPA and adequate intervention in the early vasculitic phase of this disease. We also refer to the immunological aspects of this case. It is important to consider “multi-targeted therapy” through interleukin-5 suppression and B cell depletion in the management of refractory EGPA.

Original languageEnglish
JournalRheumatology International
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Mepolizumab
  • Rituximab

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology

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