Objectives: The present study was designed to determine the genotypes of circulating Bordetella pertussis in the Philippines by direct molecular typing of clinical specimens. Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) were collected from 50 children hospitalized with pertussis in three hospitals during 2012-2014. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was performed on the DNA extracts from NPSs. B. pertussis virulence-associated allelic genes (. ptxA, prn, and fim3) and the pertussis toxin promoter, ptxP, were also investigated by DNA sequence-based typing. Results: Twenty-six DNA extracts yielded a complete MLVA profile, which were sorted into 10 MLVA types. MLVA type 34 (MT34), which is rare in Australia, Europe, Japan, and the USA, was the predominant strain (50%). Seven MTs (MT29, MT32, MT33, and MT283-286, total 42%) were single-locus variants of MT34, while two (MT141 and MT287, total 8%) were double-locus variants of MT34. All MTs had the combination of virulence-associated allelic genes, ptxP1-. ptxA1-. prn1-. fim3A. Conclusions: The B. pertussis population in the Philippines comprises genetically related strains. These strains are markedly different from those found in patients from other countries where acellular pertussis vaccines are used. The differences in vaccine types between these other countries and the Philippines, where the whole-cell vaccine is still used, may select for distinct populations of B. pertussis.
- Bordetella pertussis
- Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis
- Virulence-associated allelic gene
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases