Comparison was made between the immunobiological and antigenic properties of two lipoteichoic acid (LTA) fractions (LTA-1 and -2) from Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790, their glycolipid portions, and synthetic compounds partially mimicking the above bacterial products. The more lipophilic LTA-2 fraction was capable of inducing serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in muramyldipeptide-primed mice and serum gamma interferon in those primed with Propionibacterium acnes. The LTA-2 fraction also induced tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and thymocyte-activating factor (essentially interleukin-l) in murine peritoneal macrophage cultures. Consecutive intravenous injections of muramyldipeptide and the LTA-2 fraction in Meth A fibrosarcoma-bearing BALB/c mice caused hemorrhagic necrosis and marked regression leading to complete regression of the tumor with no accompanying weakening or lethal effects. The LTA-2 fraction was at least 10,000-fold less pyrogenic in rabbits than a reference endotoxic lipopolysaccharide. The more hydrophilic LTA-1 fraction, on the other hand, showed at most marginal activity in the in vivo and in vitro assays. Natural glycolipids (NGL-1 and - 2) which were prepared from a chloroform-methanol extract of Streptococcus pyogenes and E. hirae cells, and comparable in structure to the lipid moieties of the LTA-1 and -2 fractions, respectively, were practically inactive in all of the assays. None of the test synthetic compounds was immunobiologically active, although synthetic partial counterparts of the structure of LTA proposed by W. Fischer (Handb. Lipid Res. 6:123-234, 1990) reacted with murine monoclonal antibody TS-2, which was raised against OK- 432, a penicillin-killed S. pyogenes preparation, and capable of neutralizing the cytokine-inducing activities of the LTA-2 fraction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases