Imitation has been proven effective in motor development and neurorehabilitation. How-ever, the relationship between imitation and interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) remains unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to investigate IHI. In this study, the modifica-tion effects of IHI resulting from mirror neuron system (MNS) activation during different imitations are addressed. We measured IHI between homologous primary motor cortex (M1) by analyzing the ipsilateral silent period (iSP) evoked by single‐pulse focal TMS during imitation and analyzed the respective IHI modulation during and after different patterns of imitation. Our main results showed that throughout anatomical imitation, significant time‐course changes of iSP duration through the experiment were observed in both directions. iSP duration declined from the pre‐imitation time point to the post‐imitation time point and did not return to baseline after 30 min rest. We also observed significant iSP reduction from the right hemisphere to the left hemisphere during anatomical and specular imitation, compared with non‐imitative movement. Our findings indicate that using anatomical imitation in action observation and execution therapy promotes functional recovery in neurorehabilitation by regulating IHI.
- Interhemispheric inhibition
- Ipsilateral silent period
- Mirror neuron system
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation
ASJC Scopus subject areas