Modification of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions by muramyldipeptide in guinea pigs

Shigeki Nagao, Yoshihiro Kawabata, Motoo Kitano, Kazuo Suzuki, Takashige Nishikawa, Haruhiko Takada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


N-Acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine (muramyldipeptide, MDP) modulated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions and induced severe inflammatory lesions in guinea pigs. The animals immunized with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis were challenged with the purified protein derivative (PPD) at the flanks and the corneas to prepare DTH reactions at 2 weeks after the immunization, thereafter 24 h the animals received subcutaneous injections of MDP at the flanks of the opposite side. At the skin with the DTH reaction, increase of swelling and redness accompanied with hemorrhage and necrosis were observed. As corneal reactions in the animals that had received MDP, increase of cornea thickness, opaque and grayish-white and the projection of eyes accompanied with severe iritis were observed. Modification of the skin reaction occurred from 2 h after the MDP injection, rapidly increased to the maximum level around 10 h, maintained the level until 24 h, then slowly decreased. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration was observed from 15 min after the MDP injection, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6 levels in the serum and skin lesions increased after the MDP injection. Synthetic muramyltripeptide (N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutaminyl-l-lysine) also provoked definite skin reactions, while the larger peptidoglycan fragments and various inflammatory agents including cytokines so far examined were inactive in this respect. Cortisone and heparin inhibited definitely and slightly the reaction, respectively. A comparison was made with the modified DTH reaction and the necrotic reactions which we reported previously.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-245
Number of pages15
JournalFEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1995 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • Delayed-type hypersensitivity
  • Guinea pig
  • Muramyldipeptide
  • Necrosis
  • Polymorphonuclear leukocyte

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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