Modelling of deep gaps created by giant planets in protoplanetary disks

Kazuhiro D. Kanagawa, Hidekazu Tanaka, Takayuki Muto, Takayuki Tanigawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


A giant planet embedded in a protoplanetary disk creates a gap. This process is important for both theory and observation. Using results of a survey for a wide parameter range with two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we constructed an empirical formula for the gap structure (i.e., the radial surface density distribution), which can reproduce the gap width and depth obtained by two-dimensional simulations. This formula enables us to judge whether an observed gap is likely to be caused by an embedded planet or not. The propagation of waves launched by the planet is closely connected to the gap structure. It makes the gap wider and shallower as compared with the case where an instantaneous wave damping is assumed. The hydrodynamic simulations show that the waves do not decay immediately at the launching point of waves, even when the planet is as massive as Jupiter. Based on the results of hydrodynamic simulations, we also obtained an empirical model of wave propagation and damping in cases of deep gaps. The one-dimensional gap model with our wave propagation model is able to reproduce the gap structures in hydrodynamic simulations well. In the case of a Jupiter-mass planet, we also found that the waves with a smaller wavenumber (e.g., m = 2) are excited and transport the angular momentum to a location far away from the planet. The wave with m = 2 is closely related with a secondary wave launched by a site opposite from the planet.

Original languageEnglish
Article number97
JournalPublications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Dec 1


  • Accretion, accretion disks
  • Disk interactions
  • Planet
  • Planets and satellites: formation
  • Protoplanetary disks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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